A coach (also motor coach) is a large motor vehicle, a type of bus, used for conveying passengers on excursions and on longer distance express coach scheduled transport between cities - or even between countries. Unlike buses designed for shorter journeys, coaches often have a luggage hold separate from the passenger cabin and are normally equipped with facilities required for longer trips including comfortable seats and sometimes a toilet. The term 'coach' was previously used for a horse-drawn carriage designed for the conveyance of more than one passenger, the passengers' luggage, and mail, that is covered for protection from the elements. The term was applied to railway carriages in the 19th century, and later to motor coaches (buses). Coaches vary considerably in quality from country to country and even within counties. Higher specification vehicles include reclining upholstered seats, air-conditioning, overhead luggage compartments, and passenger-controlled aircraft-style PSU units. Other passenger amenities include small tables for small snacks, small video screens to show TV shows, videos, and/or movies, and even a beverage station. Larger items of luggage are stored below the floor in the undercarriage luggage compartments, and are accessible from outside panels. A toilet will normally be included. Coaches typically have a single door and possibly also a wheelchair-lift access.Horse drawn chariots and carriages ('coaches') were used by the wealthy and powerful where the roads were of a high enough standard from possibly 3000 BC. In Hungary during the reign of King Matthias Corvinus in the 15th century, the wheelwrights of Kocs began to build a horse-drawn vehicle with steel-spring suspension. This "cart of Kocs" as the Hungarians called it (kocsi szekr) soon became popular all over Europe. The imperial post service, employed the first horse-drawn mail coaches in Europe since Roman times in 1650, - as they started in the town of Kocs the use of these mail coaches gave rise to the term "coach".[1] Stagecoaches (drawn by horses) were used for transport between cities from about 1500 in the United Kingdom until displaced by the arrival of the railways.[2] One of the earliest motorised vehicles was the Charabancs which was used for short journeys and excursions until the early years of the 20th century.[citation needed] The first 'motor coaches' were purchased by operators of those horse-drawn vehicles in the early 20th century[3] by operators such as online bus service, Royal Blue Coach Services who purchased their first Charabanc in 1913[4] and were running were running 72 coaches by 1926.[5] Urban-suburban bus line is generally categorized as public transit, especially for large metropolitan transit networks. Usually these routes cover a long distance compared to most transit bus routes, but still short usually 40 miles in one direction. An urban-suburban bus line generally connects a suburban area to the downtown core. The vehicle can be something as simple as a merely refitted school bus (which sometimes already contains overhead storage racks) or a minibus. Often a suburban coach may be used, which is a standard transit bus modified to have some of the functionality of an interstate coach. An example would be the Suburban line employed by TransLink (Vancouver), typically going from the downtown core to suburban cities such as Delta and White Rock. In such case, the vehicles are modified standard transit bus, but with only one door and air conditioning. The vehicles provide accommodation for the disabled (through a lift or ramp at the front), and thus has a few high-back seats, usually in the front, that can be folded up for wheelchairs. The rest of the seats are reclining upholstered seats and have individual lights and overhead storage bins. Because it is a commuter bus, it has some (but not much) standing room, stop-request devices, and a farebox. This model also has a bike rack at the front to accommodate two bicycles. Some lines use a full-size interstate coach with on board toilet, such as the "TrainBus" service of West Coast Express. Suburban models in the United States are often used in Park-and-Ride services, and are very common in the New York City area, where New Jersey Transit Bus Operations is a major operator serving widespread bedroom communities. In terms of services, buses may run less frequently, and service fewer stops. One common arrangement is to have a few stops at the beginning of the trip, and a few near the end, since the majority of the trip is spent on a highway. Some stops may have service restrictions, such as ones that are boarding only and others which are discharge only. Some routes may only have scheduled trips in the morning, heading to the urban core, with other trips in the evening, heading toward suburbs only. They may also be used to supplement another service, as in Vancouver's West Coast Express' TrainBus, which runs when the commuter train is not in service. Coach USA traces its history back to 1922 as Lackawanna Bus and later Consolidated Bus Lines, a small outfit operating local service in Bergen County, New Jersey and later along the Jersey Shore and throughout the New York metropolitan area founded by Jim and Denis Gallagher.[1] Community Coach, today the headquarters of Coach USA, began operations in 1958 under Denis's brother, John. The latter took over the operations of Consolidated Bus Lines, using the operating authority of another company that the Gallagher family had purchased in Paramus, New Jersey three years prior; through other acquisitions by the Gallagher family, six of these companies would become subsidiaries of Coach USA at its inception in 1995, when Frank Gallagher sold the firms to Notre Capital Ventures. At its inception, Coach USA consisted of six companies: Suburban Trails, Community Coach, Leisure Line, and Adventure Trails in New Jersey, Gray Line of San Francisco, and Arrow Stage Line in Arizona (not to be confused with unaffiliated Arrow Stage Lines).[2][3] Listing on the NASDAQ in 1996 under ticker TOUR, and later switching to the New York Stock Exchange under stock ticker CYI, Coach USA, under the leadership of Richard Kristinik, would expand quickly, acquiring companies throughout the United States in the next three years to expand to over 5,000 buses and many more taxicabs, as its acquisitions also included yellow cab firms throughout the United States. During this time, the Gallagher family would start another company, Student Transportation of America, based in the area of its Coast Cities operation.[1] In 1998, Kristinik retired, and Larry King succeeded him.[4] Stagecoach Group would purchase Coach USA in mid-1999 for $1.88 billion USD.[5] Under Stagecoach ownership and the helm of Frank Gallagher, the owner of its predecessors,[3] Coach USA sought to continue expansion, but the company, hit hard by the loss of charter business after the September 11, 2001 attacks,[2] caused Stagecoach to crash to a loss of over 524 million, at which point Stagecoach, having lost over 70 percent of its investment and now under the leadership of its founder, Brian Souter, after the downturn cost the previous CEO of Stagecoach his job, announced that all of the taxicab operations and most of Coach USA's subsidiaries were for sale, as Stagecoach sought to focus mostly on operations in the northeast, where Coach USA today maintains subsidized transit operations and scheduled service.[6][7] Retrenching, Stagecoach sold its companies in New England to Peter Pan Bus Lines.[8] Companies in the Southwest, West, and Rocky Mountain regions were sold to Kohlberg Kravis Roberts to form Coach America,[9] and companies in the southeastern United States were sold to Lincolnshire Management, rebranded as American Coach Lines (which was merged with Coach America in 2006),[10][11] all at heavy losses. The contract transit division was flipped to competitor First Transit.[12] As a result of the sale of most of Coach USA's operations, the company's headquarters were relocated from Texas to the Community Coach garage in Paramus, New Jersey. Eight of the sold companies would be reacquired when Coach America declared bankruptcy in 2012, along with Lakefront/Hopkins in Ohio, with the intent of expanding (and in the case of California, reintroducing) the Megabus brand. Coach USA's operations today consist primarily of scheduled services in New York metropolitan area and Chicago metropolitan area, with a number of charter operations near Pittsburgh and scheduled operations in the Southern Tier of New York and southern Wisconsin, along with its Megabus operations throughout the eastern and central United States. Coach USA, which once had six divisions (New England (now owned by Peter Pan), Northeast, North Central, Southeast (now under the American Coach Lines brand of Coach America), South Central (now owned by Coach America), and West (now owned by Coach America)), now operates all of its operations in two divisions, Northeast and North Central.:[13][14] Northeast: Based in Paramus, New Jersey, this division consists of Coach USA companies based in the New York metropolitan area and the Southern Tier of New York State. Community Coach (headquarters of Northeast Division and Coach USA) Twin America LLC (operator of Gray Line New York Sightseeing, joint venture with New York Airport Service) Olympia Trails (also includes Red & Tan in Hudson County, ONE/Independent Bus, and Megabus Northeast) Rockland Coaches (also includes dedicated Transport of Rockland operations) Short Line Bus (also includes Chenango Valley Bus Lines) Suburban Trails (also includes Cape Transit) North Central: Based in Des Plaines, Illinois, this division consists of Coach USA companies based near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and Chicago, Illinois. Butler Motor Transit (also includes Coach USA Erie and Gad-About Tours) Keeshin Charter Service (Coach USA Chicago and Megabus USA (Midwest operations)) Central Cab Company (also includes Country Road Tours, Mountaineer Coach, and Park Tours) Lenzner Coach Lines Tri State/United Limo Sam Van Galder, Inc. Wisconsin Coach Lines A coach is originally a large, usually closed, four-wheeled carriage with two or more horses harnessed as a team, controlled by a coachman and/or one or more postilions. It had doors in the sides, with generally a front and a back seat inside and, for the driver, a small, usually elevated seat in front called a box, box seat or coach box. The term "coach" first came into use in the 15th century, and spread across Europe. There are a number of types of coaches, with differentiations based on use, location and size. Special breeds of horses, such as the now-extinct Yorkshire Coach Horse, were developed to pull the vehicles.Kocs (pronounced "kotch") was the Hungarian post town in the 15th century onwards, which gave its name to a fast light vehicle, which later spread across Europe. Therefore the English word coach, the Spanish and Portuguese coche, the German Kutsche, and the Slovak and Czech koc all probably derive from the Hungarian word "kocsi", literally meaning "of Kocs".[1][2] It was not until about the middle of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, that coaches were introduced to England. Coaches were introduced into England from France by Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel.[3] A coach with four horses is a coach-and-four.[4] A coach together with the horses, harness and attendants is a turnout.[5] The bodies of early coaches, as of American Concord stagecoaches, were hung on leather straps. In the eighteenth century steel springs were substituted, an improvement in suspension. An advertisement in the Edinburgh Courant for 1754 reads: The Edinburgh stage-coach, for the better accommodation of passengers, will be altered to a new genteel two-end glass coach-machine, hung on steel springs, exceedingly light and easy... A coach might have a built-in compartment called a boot, used originally as a seat for the coachman and later for storage. A luggage case for the top of a coach was called an imperial; the top, roof or second-story compartment of a coach was also known as an imperial.[6] The front and rear axles were connected by a main shaft called the perch or reach. A crossbar known as a splinter bar supported the springs. Coaches were often decorated by painters using a sable brush called a liner. The business of a coachman (or coachee, formerly coacher) was to drive a coach. He was also called a jarvey or jarvie, especially in Ireland (Jarvey was a nickname for Jarvis). If he drove dangerously fast or recklessly he was a jehu (from Jehu, king of Israel, who was noted for his furious attacks in a chariot (2 Kings 9:20), or a Phaeton (from Greek Phaton, son of Helios, who attempted to drive the chariot of the sun but managed to set the earth on fire). A postilion or postillion sometimes rode as a guide on the near horse of a pair or of one of the pairs attached to a coach, especially when there was no coachman. A guard on a horse-drawn coach was called a shooter. Fairman Rogers' Four-in-hand, by Thomas Eakins, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, 1880 Traveling by coach, or pleasure driving in a coach, as in a tally-ho, was called coaching. In driving a coach, the coachman used a coachwhip, usually provided with a long lash. Coachmen and coach passengers might have worn a box coat, a heavy overcoat with or without shoulder capes, used by coachmen riding on the box seat exposed to all kinds of weather.[8] A hammercloth, ornamented and often fringed, sometimes hung over the coachman's seat, especially on a ceremonial coach.[9] A coach horse or coacher is used or adapted for drawing a coach, as it is typically heavier and of more compact build than a road horse, and exhibits good style and action.[10] Breeds include: Breton: heavy, French, for draft or meat German coach: large, rather coarse, heavy draft horse or harness horse; bay, brown or black in color Hanoverian: developed by crossing heavy cold-blooded German horses with Thoroughbreds Holstein: German, heavyweight, for riding and dressage, initially a carriage horse; bay, black or brown. Called also Holsteiner, Warmblut, Warmblood. Yorkshire Coach Horse: large, strong, bay or brown; dark legs, mane and tail; belongs to an English breed derived largely from the Cleveland Bay Sometimes an extra horse, called a cockhorse, was led behind a coach so that it could be hitched before the regular team to assist in passing over steep or difficult terrain. The Dalmatian is also known as a coach dog or carriage dog, because it was formerly used to run in attendance on a coach. A coach house was a building for keeping a private carriage in and it often also included stabling for the horses and accommodation for coachman, groom or other servants; it was usually an outbuilding on an estate or adjacent to a large house. A coaching inn, also called coaching house, located along a route followed by horse-drawn coaches, served coach travelers and offered stabling for the horses of stagecoaches and a place to change horses.

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